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ORACLE CORPORATION

(ORCL)
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ORACLE : Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (form 10-K)

06/21/2021 | 04:14pm EDT

We begin Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations with an overview of our businesses and significant trends. This overview is followed by a summary of our critical accounting policies and estimates that we believe are important to understanding the assumptions and judgments incorporated in our reported financial results. We then provide a more detailed analysis of our results of operations and financial condition for fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 can be found in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on June 22, 2020, which is available free of charge on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov and on our Investor Relations website at www.oracle.com/investor.

Business Overview

Oracle provides products and services that address enterprise information technology (IT) environments. Our products and services include enterprise applications and infrastructure offerings that are delivered worldwide through a variety of flexible and interoperable IT deployment models. These models include on-premise deployments, cloud­based deployments, and hybrid deployments (an approach that combines both on-premise and cloud­based deployment) such as our Oracle Cloud@Customer offering (an instance of Oracle Cloud in a customer's own data center). Accordingly, we offer choice and flexibility to our customers and facilitate the product, service and deployment combinations that best suit our customers' needs. Through our worldwide sales force and Oracle Partner Network, we sell to customers all over the world including businesses of many sizes, government agencies, educational institutions and resellers.

We have three businesses: cloud and license; hardware; and services; each of which comprises a single operating segment. The descriptions set forth below as a part of this Item 7 and the information contained within Item 1 Business and Note 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report provide additional information related to our businesses and operating segments and align to how our chief operating decision makers (CODMs), which include our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Technology Officer, view our operating results and allocate resources.

Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Oracle's Business

For a discussion of the impacts on and risks to our business from COVID-19, please refer to "Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Oracle's Business" included in Item 1 Business in this Annual Report, the risks included in Item 1A Risk Factors in this Annual Report and the information presented below in "Results of Operations" in this Item 7.

Cloud and License Business

Our cloud and license business, which represented 84% and 83% of our total revenues in fiscal 2021 and 2020, respectively, markets, sells and delivers a broad spectrum of enterprise applications and infrastructure technologies through our cloud and license offerings. Revenue streams included in our cloud and license business are:

  • Cloud services and license support revenues, which include:


       o   license support revenues, which are earned by providing Oracle license
           support services to customers that have elected to purchase support
           services in connection with the purchase of Oracle applications and
           infrastructure software licenses for use in cloud, on-premise and other
           IT environments. Substantially all license support customers renew
           their support contracts with us upon expiration in order to continue to
           benefit from technical support services and the periodic issuance of
           unspecified updates and enhancements, which current license support
           customers are entitled to receive. License support contracts are
           generally priced as a percentage of the net fees paid by the customer
           to purchase a cloud license and/or on-premise license; are generally
           billed in advance of the support services being performed; are
           generally renewed at the customer's option; and are generally


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           recognized as revenues ratably over the contractual period that the
           support services are provided, which is generally one year; and


       o   cloud services revenues, which provide customers access to Oracle Cloud
           applications and infrastructure technologies via cloud-based deployment
           models that Oracle develops, provides unspecified updates and
           enhancements for, deploys, hosts, manages and supports and that
           customers access by entering into a subscription agreement with us for
           a stated period. Oracle Cloud Services arrangements are generally
           billed in advance of the cloud services being performed; generally have
           durations of one to three years; are generally renewed at the
           customer's option; and are generally recognized as revenues ratably
           over the contractual period of the cloud contract or, in the case of
           usage model contracts, as the cloud services are consumed over time.


    •  Cloud license and on-premise license revenues, which include revenues from
       the licensing of our software products including Oracle Applications,
       Oracle Database, Oracle Middleware and Java, among others, which our
       customers deploy within cloud-based, on-premise and other IT environments.
       Our cloud license and on-premise license transactions are generally
       perpetual in nature and are generally recognized as revenues up front at
       the point in time when the software is made available to the customer to
       download and use. Revenues from usage-based royalty arrangements for
       distinct cloud licenses and on-premise licenses are recognized at the point
       in time when the software end user usage occurs. The timing of a few large
       license transactions can substantially affect our quarterly license
       revenues due to the point-in-time nature of revenue recognition for license
       transactions, which is different than the typical revenue recognition
       pattern for our cloud services and license support revenues in which
       revenues are generally recognized ratably over the contractual terms. Cloud
       license and on-premise license customers have the option to purchase and
       renew license support contracts, as further described above.

Providing choice and flexibility to our customers as to when and how they deploy Oracle applications and infrastructure technologies are important elements of our corporate strategy. In recent periods, customer demand for our applications and infrastructure technologies delivered through our Oracle Cloud Services has increased. To address customer demand and enable customer choice, we have introduced certain programs for customers to pivot their applications and infrastructure licenses and the related license support to the Oracle Cloud for new deployments and to migrate to and expand with the Oracle Cloud for their existing workloads. The proportion of our cloud services and license support revenues relative to our cloud license and on-premise license revenues, hardware revenues and services revenues has increased and we expect this trend to continue. Cloud services and license support revenues represented 71%, 70% and 68% of our total revenues during fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Our cloud and license business' revenue growth is affected by many factors, including the strength of general economic and business conditions; governmental budgetary constraints; the strategy for and competitive position of our offerings; the continued renewal of our cloud services and license support customer contracts by the customer contract base; substantially all customers continuing to purchase license support contracts in connection with their license purchases; the pricing of license support contracts sold in connection with the sales of licenses; the pricing, amounts and volumes of licenses and cloud services sold; our ability to manage Oracle Cloud capacity requirements to meet existing and prospective customer demand; and foreign currency rate fluctuations.

On a constant currency basis, we expect that our total cloud and license revenues generally will continue to increase due to:

  • expected growth in our cloud services and license support offerings; and


  • continued demand for our cloud license and on-premise license offerings.

We believe these factors should contribute to future growth in our cloud and license business' total revenues, which should enable us to continue to make investments in research and development and our cloud operations to develop, improve, increase the capacity of and expand the geographic footprint of our cloud and license products and services.


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Our cloud and license business' margin has historically trended upward over the course of the four quarters within a particular fiscal year due to the historical upward trend of our cloud and license business' revenues over those quarterly periods and because the majority of our costs for this business are generally fixed in the short term. The historical upward trend of our cloud and license business' revenues over the course of the four quarters within a particular fiscal year is primarily due to the addition of new cloud services and license support contracts to the customer contract base that we generally recognize as revenues ratably or based upon customer usage over the respective contractual terms; the renewal of existing customers' cloud services and license support contracts over the course of each fiscal year that we generally recognize as revenues ratably; and the historical upward trend of our cloud license and on-premise license revenues, which we generally recognize at a point in time upon delivery; in each case over those four quarterly periods.

Hardware Business

Our hardware business, which represented 8% and 9% of our total revenues in fiscal 2021 and 2020, respectively, provides a broad selection of enterprise hardware products and hardware-related software products including Oracle Engineered Systems, servers, storage, industry-specific hardware offerings, operating systems, virtualization, management and other hardware-related software, and related hardware support. Each hardware product and its related software, such as an operating system or firmware, are highly interdependent and interrelated and are accounted for as a combined performance obligation. The revenues for this combined performance obligation are generally recognized at the point in time that the hardware product and its related software are delivered to the customer and ownership is transferred to the customer. We expect to make investments in research and development to improve existing hardware products and services and to develop new hardware products and services. The majority of our hardware products are sold through indirect channels, including independent distributors and value-added resellers. Our hardware support offerings provide customers with unspecified software updates for software components that are essential to the functionality of our hardware products and associated software products such as Oracle Solaris. Our hardware support offerings can also include product repairs, maintenance services and technical support services. Hardware support contracts are entered into and renewed at the option of the customer, are generally priced as a percentage of the net hardware products fees and are generally recognized as revenues ratably as the hardware support services are delivered over the contractual terms.

We generally expect our hardware business to have lower operating margins as a percentage of revenues than our cloud and license business due to the incremental costs we incur to produce and distribute these products and to provide support services, including direct materials and labor costs.

Our quarterly hardware revenues are difficult to predict. Our hardware revenues, cost of hardware and hardware operating margins that we report are affected by many factors, including our manufacturing partners' abilities to timely manufacture or deliver a few large hardware transactions; our strategy for and the position of our hardware products relative to competitor offerings; customer demand for competing offerings, including cloud infrastructure offerings; the strength of general economic and business conditions; governmental budgetary constraints; whether customers decide to purchase hardware support contracts at or in close proximity to the time of hardware product sale; the percentage of our hardware support contract customer base that renews its support contracts and the close association between hardware products, which have a finite life, and customer demand for related hardware support as hardware products age; customer decisions to either maintain or upgrade their existing hardware infrastructure to newly developed technologies that are available; and foreign currency rate fluctuations.

Services Business

Our services business, which represented 8% of our total revenues in each of fiscal 2021 and 2020, helps customers and partners maximize the performance of their investments in Oracle applications and infrastructure technologies. We believe that our services are differentiated based on our focus on Oracle technologies, extensive experience, broad sets of intellectual property and best practices. Our services offerings include consulting services and advanced customer services. Our services business has lower margins than our cloud and license and hardware businesses. Our services revenues are affected by many factors including our strategy for, and the


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competitive position of, our services; customer demand for our cloud and license and hardware offerings and the associated services for these offerings; general economic conditions; governmental budgetary constraints; personnel reductions in our customers' IT departments; tighter controls over customer discretionary spending; and foreign currency rate fluctuations.

Acquisitions

Our selective and active acquisition program is another important element of our corporate strategy. Historically, we have invested billions of dollars to acquire a number of complementary companies, products, services and technologies. The pace of our acquisitions has slowed in recent years, but as compelling opportunities become available, we may acquire companies, products, services and technologies in furtherance of our corporate strategy. Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report provides additional information related to our recent acquisitions.

We believe that we can fund our future acquisitions with our internally available cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, cash generated from operations, additional borrowings or from the issuance of additional securities. We estimate the financial impact of any potential acquisition with regard to earnings, operating margin, cash flows and return on invested capital targets before deciding to move forward with an acquisition.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) as set forth in the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), and we consider the various staff accounting bulletins and other applicable guidance issued by the SEC. GAAP, as set forth within the ASC, requires us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions. We believe that the estimates, judgments and assumptions upon which we rely are reasonable based upon information available to us at the time that these estimates, judgments and assumptions are made. These estimates, judgments and assumptions can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. To the extent that there are differences between these estimates, judgments or assumptions and actual results, our financial statements will be affected. The accounting policies that reflect our more significant estimates, judgments and assumptions and which we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results include:

  • Revenue Recognition;


  • Business Combinations;


  • Goodwill and Intangible Assets-Impairment Assessments;


  • Accounting for Income Taxes; and


  • Legal and Other Contingencies.

Our senior management has reviewed our critical accounting policies and related disclosures with the Finance and Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report includes additional information about our critical and other accounting policies.

Revenue Recognition

The most critical judgments required in applying ASC 606, Revenue Recognition from Customers, and our revenue recognition policy relate to the determination of distinct performance obligations and the evaluation of the standalone selling price (SSP) for each performance obligation.

Many of our customer contracts include multiple performance obligations. Judgment is required in determining whether each performance obligation within a customer contract is distinct. Oracle products and services generally do not require a significant amount of integration or interdependency. Therefore, multiple products and services


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contained within a customer contract are generally considered to be distinct and are not combined for revenue recognition purposes. We allocate the transaction price for each customer contract to each performance obligation based on the relative SSP (the determination of SSP is discussed below) for each performance obligation within each contract. We recognize the amount of transaction price allocated to each performance obligation within a customer contract as revenue as each performance obligation is delivered.

We use historical sales transaction data and judgment, among other factors, in determining the SSP for products and services. For substantially all performance obligations except cloud licenses and on-premise licenses, we are able to establish the SSP based on the observable prices of products or services sold separately in comparable circumstances to similar customers. We typically establish an SSP range for our products and services, which is reassessed on a periodic basis or when facts and circumstances change. SSP for our products and services can evolve over time due to changes in our pricing practices that are influenced by intense competition, changes in demand for our products and services, and economic factors, among others. Our cloud licenses and on-premise licenses have not historically been sold on a standalone basis, as substantially all customers elect to purchase license support contracts at the time of a license purchase. License support contracts are generally priced as a percentage of the net fees paid by the customer to purchase the license. We are unable to establish the SSP for our cloud licenses and on-premise licenses based on observable prices given the same products are sold for a broad range of amounts (that is, the selling price is highly variable) and a representative SSP is not discernible from past transactions or other observable evidence. As a result, the SSP for a cloud license and an on-premise license included in a contract with multiple performance obligations is generally determined by applying a residual approach whereby all other performance obligations within a contract are first allocated a portion of the transaction price based upon their respective SSPs, with any residual amount of transaction price allocated to cloud license and on-premise license revenues.

Business Combinations

We apply the provisions of ASC 805, Business Combinations (ASC 805), in accounting for our acquisitions. ASC 805 requires that we evaluate whether a transaction pertains to an acquisition of assets, or to an acquisition of a business. A business is defined as an integrated set of assets and activities that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return to investors. Asset acquisitions are accounted for by allocating the cost of the acquisition to the individual assets and liabilities assumed on a relative fair value basis; whereas the acquisition of a business requires us to recognize separately from goodwill the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at the acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as any contingent consideration, where applicable, our estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the business acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of a business acquisition's measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our consolidated statements of operations.

Accounting for business combinations requires our management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date, including our estimates for intangible assets, contractual obligations assumed, pre-acquisition contingencies and any contingent consideration, where applicable. Although we believe that the assumptions and estimates we have made in the past have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results.

For a given business acquisition, we may identify certain pre-acquisition contingencies as of the acquisition date and may extend our review and evaluation of these pre-acquisition contingencies throughout the measurement period in order to obtain sufficient information to assess whether we include these contingencies as a part of the fair value estimates of assets acquired and liabilities assumed and, if so, to determine their estimated amounts.


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If we cannot reasonably determine the fair value of a non-income tax related pre-acquisition contingency by the end of the measurement period, which is generally the case given the nature of such matters, we will recognize an asset or a liability for such pre-acquisition contingency if: (1) it is probable that an asset existed or a liability had been incurred at the acquisition date and (2) the amount of the asset or liability can be reasonably estimated. Subsequent to the measurement period or final determination of the net asset values for the business combination, whichever comes first, changes in our estimates of such contingencies will affect earnings and could have a material effect on our results of operations and financial position.

In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances assumed in a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. We reevaluate these items quarterly based upon facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date with any adjustments to our preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill if identified within the measurement period. Subsequent to the measurement period or our final determination of the tax allowance's or contingency's estimated value, whichever comes first, changes to these uncertain tax positions and tax related valuation allowances will affect our provision for income taxes in our consolidated statement of operations and could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets-Impairment Assessments

We review goodwill for impairment annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate its carrying value may not be recoverable. We make certain judgments and assumptions to determine our reporting units and in allocating shared assets and liabilities to determine the carrying values for each of our reporting units.

Judgment in the assessment of qualitative factors of impairment include cost factors; financial performance; legal, regulatory, contractual, political, business, and other factors; entity specific factors; industry and market considerations, macroeconomic conditions, and other relevant events and factors affecting the reporting unit. To the extent we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a quantitative test is then performed.

Performing a quantitative goodwill impairment test includes the determination of the fair value of a reporting unit and involves significant estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions include, among others, revenue growth rates and operating margins used to calculate projected future cash flows, risk-adjusted discount rates, future economic and market conditions, and the determination of appropriate market comparables.

We make judgments about the recoverability of purchased finite lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may exist. In such situations, we are required to evaluate whether the net book values of our finite lived intangible assets are recoverable. We determine whether finite lived intangible assets are recoverable based upon the forecasted future cash flows that are expected to be generated by the lowest level associated asset grouping. Assumptions and estimates about future values and remaining useful lives of our intangible assets are complex and subjective and include, among others, forecasted undiscounted cash flows to be generated by certain asset groupings. These assumptions and estimates can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy and our internal forecasts.

Accounting for Income Taxes

Judgment is required in determining our worldwide income tax provision. In the ordinary course of a global business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax outcome is uncertain. Some of these uncertainties arise as a consequence of revenue sharing and cost reimbursement arrangements among related entities, the process of identifying items of revenues and expenses that qualify for preferential tax treatment, and the segregation of foreign and domestic earnings and expenses to avoid double taxation. Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable, the final tax outcome of these matters could be different from that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Such differences could have a material effect on our income tax provision and net income in the period in which such determination is made.


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We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In order for us to realize our deferred tax assets, we must be able to generate sufficient taxable income in those jurisdictions where the deferred tax assets are located. We consider future growth, forecasted earnings, future taxable income, the mix of earnings in the jurisdictions in which we operate, historical earnings, taxable income in prior years, if carryback is permitted under the law, and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in determining the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets valuation allowance would be charged to earnings in the period in which we make such a determination, or goodwill would be adjusted at our final determination of the valuation allowance related to an acquisition within the measurement period. If we later determine that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance as an adjustment to our provision for income taxes at such time.

We calculate our current and deferred tax provision based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. Adjustments based on filed returns are generally recorded in the period when the tax returns are filed and the global tax implications are known, which can materially impact our effective tax rate.

The amount of income tax we pay is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities, which often result in proposed assessments. Our estimate of the potential outcome for any uncertain tax issue may require certain judgments. A description of our accounting policies associated with tax related contingencies assumed as a part of a business combination is provided under "Business Combinations" above.

For those tax related contingencies that are not a part of a business combination, we account for these uncertain tax issues pursuant to ASC 740, Income Taxes, which contains a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The first step is to determine if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained in an audit, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. Although we believe that we have adequately reserved for our uncertain tax positions, no assurance can be given with respect to the final outcome of these matters. We adjust reserves for our uncertain tax positions due to changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit, judicial rulings, and refinement of estimates or realization of earnings or deductions that differ from our estimates. To the extent that the final outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences generally will impact our provision for income taxes in the period in which such a determination is made. Our provisions for income taxes include the impact of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate and also include the related interest and penalties.

Legal and Other Contingencies

We are currently involved in various claims and legal proceedings. Quarterly, we review the status of each significant matter and assess our potential financial exposure. A description of our accounting policies associated with contingencies assumed as a part of a business combination is provided under "Business Combinations" above. For legal and other contingencies that are not a part of a business combination, we accrue a liability for an estimated loss if the potential loss from any claim or legal proceeding is considered probable, and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether the amount of an exposure is reasonably estimable. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, accruals are based only on the best information available at the time the accruals are made. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to our pending claims and litigation and may revise our estimates. Such revisions in the estimates of the potential liabilities could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.


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Results of Operations

Presentation of Operating Segment Results and Other Financial Information

In our fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 results of operations discussion below, we provide an overview of our total consolidated revenues, total consolidated operating expenses and total consolidated operating margin, all of which are presented on a GAAP basis. We also present a GAAP-based discussion below for substantially all of the other expense items as presented in our consolidated statements of operations that are not directly attributable to our three businesses.

In addition, we discuss below the fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 results of each of our three businesses-cloud and license, hardware and services-which are our operating segments as defined pursuant to ASC 280, Segment Reporting. The financial reporting for our three businesses that is presented below is presented in a manner that is consistent with that used by our CODMs. Our operating segment presentation below reflects revenues, direct costs and sales and marketing expenses that correspond to and are directly attributable to each of our three businesses. We also utilize these inputs to calculate and present a segment margin for each of our three businesses in the discussion below.

Consistent with our internal management reporting processes, the below operating segment presentation is noted to include any revenues adjustments related to cloud services and license support contracts that would have otherwise been recorded by the acquired businesses as independent entities but were not recognized in our consolidated statements of operations for the periods presented due to business combination accounting requirements. Refer to "Supplemental Disclosure Related to Certain Charges" below for additional discussion of these items and Note 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for a reconciliation of the summations of our total operating segment revenues as presented in the discussion below to total revenues as presented per our consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented.

In addition, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, stock-based compensation expenses, amortization of intangible assets, certain other expense allocations, acquisition related and other expenses, restructuring expenses, interest expense, non-operating expenses or income, net and provision for income taxes are not attributed to our three operating segments because our management does not view the performance of our three businesses including such items and/or it is impractical to do so. Refer to "Supplemental Disclosure Related to Certain Charges" below for additional discussion of certain of these items and Note 15 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for a reconciliation of the summations of total segment margin as presented in the discussion below to total income before provision for income taxes as presented per our consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented.

We experienced COVID-19 related impacts to our business during fiscal 2021 and 2020. Certain of these historical impacts on our operating results are further discussed below. Any future impacts are currently unknown.

Separately, as described further below and in Notes 1 and 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report, we recorded a $2.3 billion non-recurring net deferred tax benefit during fiscal 2021 that related to a partial realignment of our legal entity structure that resulted in the intra-group transfer of certain intellectual property rights.

Constant Currency Presentation

Our international operations have provided and are expected to continue to provide a significant portion of each of our businesses' revenues and expenses. As a result, each of our businesses' revenues and expenses and our total revenues and expenses will continue to be affected by changes in the U.S. Dollar against major international currencies. In order to provide a framework for assessing how our underlying businesses performed, excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, we compare the percent change in the results from one period to another period in this Annual Report using constant currency disclosure. To present this information, current and comparative prior period results for entities reporting in currencies other than U.S. Dollars are converted into U.S. Dollars at constant exchange rates (i.e., the rates in effect on May 31, 2020, which was the last day of our prior fiscal year) rather than the actual exchange rates in effect during the respective periods. For example, if an entity


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reporting in Euros had revenues of 1.0 million Euros from products sold on May 31, 2021 and 2020, our financial statements would reflect reported revenues of $1.19 million in fiscal 2021 (using 1.19 as the month-end average exchange rate for the period) and $1.10 million in fiscal 2020 (using 1.10 as the month-end average exchange rate for the period). The constant currency presentation, however, would translate the fiscal 2021 results using the fiscal 2020 exchange rate and indicate, in this example, no change in revenues during the period. In each of the tables below, we present the percent change based on actual, unrounded results in reported currency and in constant currency.

Total Revenues and Operating Expenses



                                          Year Ended May 31,
                                             Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)            2021       Actual   Constant     2020
Total Revenues by Geography:
Americas                       $ 21,828         1%         2%   $ 21,563
EMEA(1)                          11,894         8%         2%     11,035
Asia Pacific                      6,757         4%         1%      6,470
Total revenues                   40,479         4%         2%     39,068
Total Operating Expenses         25,266         0%        -1%     25,172
Total Operating Margin         $ 15,213         9%         6%   $ 13,896
Total Operating Margin %            38%                              36%
% Revenues by Geography:
Americas                            54%                              55%
EMEA                                29%                              28%
Asia Pacific                        17%                              17%
Total Revenues by Business:
Cloud and license              $ 34,099         5%         3%   $ 32,519
Hardware                          3,359        -2%        -4%      3,443
Services                          3,021        -3%        -5%      3,106
Total revenues                 $ 40,479         4%         2%   $ 39,068
% Revenues by Business:
Cloud and license                   84%                              83%
Hardware                             8%                               9%
Services                             8%                               8%



(1) Comprised of Europe, the Middle East and Africa

Excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, our total revenues increased in fiscal 2021. The constant currency increase in our cloud and license business' revenues during fiscal 2021 was offset by decreases in our hardware business' revenues and services business' revenues. The constant currency increase in our cloud and license business' revenues during fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 was attributable to growth in our cloud services and license support revenues and growth in our cloud license and on-premise license revenues as customers purchased our applications and infrastructure technologies via cloud and license deployment models and renewed their related cloud contracts and license support contracts to continue to gain access to the latest versions of our technologies and to receive support services. The constant currency decrease in our hardware business' revenues during fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 was due to the emphasis we placed on the marketing and sale of our growing cloud-based infrastructure technologies and the de-emphasis of our sales and marketing efforts for certain of our non-strategic hardware products and related support services. The constant currency decrease in our services business' revenues during fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 was primarily attributable to a decline in our consulting revenues. All three of our businesses' revenues were adversely impacted during fiscal 2021 and 2020 due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and some of these effects may continue into fiscal 2022. While we expect these effects to be temporary, the impacts of COVID-19 for future periods are unknown. In constant currency, the Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific regions contributed 54%, 39% and 7%, respectively, to the growth in our total revenues during fiscal 2021.


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Excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, our total operating expenses decreased during fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 primarily due to lower sales and marketing expenses, lower hardware expenses and lower services expenses, all of which were primarily attributable to lower headcount and a reduction in certain variable expenditures as further described below. In addition, we also incurred lower amortization of intangible assets during fiscal 2021. These constant currency expense decreases were partially offset by certain constant currency expense increases during fiscal 2021, primarily: higher cloud services and license support expenses, which increased primarily due to higher infrastructure investments that were made to support the increase in our cloud and license business' revenues; higher research and development and general and administrative expenses, each of which increased primarily due to higher employee related expenses; higher acquisition related and other expenses, which increased primarily due to certain right-of-use assets and other assets that were abandoned in connection with plans to improve our cost structure and operations; and higher restructuring expenses, which increased due to actions taken during fiscal 2021 pursuant to the Fiscal 2019 Oracle Restructuring Plan (2019 Restructuring Plan). During fiscal 2021 and 2020, we curtailed a number of variable expenditures across all of our lines of businesses and functions including employee travel expenses and marketing expenses, among others, primarily in response to COVID-19. We expect certain of these expenses may normalize in future periods provided global economic and health conditions improve.

In constant currency, our total operating margin and total operating margin as a percentage of total revenues increased in fiscal 2021 due to higher total revenues and lower total operating expenses. In fiscal 2022, we expect to accelerate our investments primarily in our cloud and license business. We expect fiscal 2022 total expenses growth to exceed total revenues growth and, as a result, our fiscal 2022 total operating margin as a percentage of total revenues to be modestly lower relative to fiscal 2021.

Supplemental Disclosure Related to Certain Charges

To supplement our consolidated financial information, we believe that the following information is helpful to an overall understanding of our past financial performance and prospects for the future.

Our operating results reported pursuant to GAAP included the following business combination accounting adjustments and expenses related to acquisitions and certain other expense and income items that affected our GAAP net income:




                                                            Year Ended May 31,
(in millions)                                                2021          2020

Cloud services and license support deferred revenues(1) $ 2 $ 4 Amortization of intangible assets(2)

                            1,379       1,586
Acquisition related and other(3)                                  138          56
Restructuring(4)                                                  431         250
Stock-based compensation, operating segments(5)                   513         436
Stock-based compensation, R&D and G&A(5)                        1,324       1,154
Income tax effects(6)                                          (3,408 )      (939 )
                                                          $       379$ 2,547


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(1) In connection with our acquisitions, we have estimated the fair values of the

    cloud services and license support contracts assumed. Due to our application
    of business combination accounting rules, we did not recognize the cloud
    services and license support revenue amounts as presented in the above table
    that would have otherwise been recorded by the acquired businesses as
    independent entities upon delivery of the contractual obligations. To the
    extent customers for which these contractual obligations pertain renew these
    contracts with us, we expect to recognize revenues for the full contracts'
    values over the respective contracts' renewal periods.

(2) Represents the amortization of intangible assets, substantially all of which

    were acquired in connection with our acquisitions. As of May 31, 2021,
    estimated future amortization related to intangible assets was as follows (in
    millions):




  Fiscal 2022                    $ 1,122
  Fiscal 2023                        698
  Fiscal 2024                        453
  Fiscal 2025                        123
  Fiscal 2026                         24
  Thereafter                          10
  Total intangible assets, net   $ 2,430

(3) Acquisition related and other expenses primarily consist of personnel related

    costs for transitional and certain other employees, integration related
    professional services, certain business combination adjustments including
    certain adjustments after the measurement period has ended and certain other
    operating items, net.

(4) Restructuring expenses during fiscal 2021 and 2020 primarily related to

    employee severance in connection with our 2019 Restructuring Plan. Additional
    information regarding certain of our restructuring plans is provided in
    management's discussion below under "Restructuring Expenses" and in Note 8 of
    Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual
    Report.

(5) Stock-based compensation was included in the following operating expense line

    items of our consolidated statements of operations (in millions):




                                                   Year Ended May 31,
                                                    2021          2020
  Cloud services and license support             $      134$   110
  Hardware                                               11           11
  Services                                               55           54
  Sales and marketing                                   313          261
  Stock-based compensation, operating segments          513          436
  Research and development                            1,188        1,035
  General and administrative                            136          119
  Total stock-based compensation                 $    1,837$ 1,590

(6) For fiscal 2021, the applicable jurisdictional tax rates applied to our

    income before provision for income taxes after excluding the tax effects of
    items within the table above such as for stock-based compensation,
    amortization of intangible assets, restructuring, and certain other
    acquisition related items, and after excluding a $2.3 billion tax benefit
    arising from the increase of a deferred tax asset associated with a partial
    realignment of our legal entity structure and any related deferred tax
    expense (refer to Notes 1 and 14 in our consolidated financial statements
    included elsewhere in this Annual Report for additional information),
    resulted in an effective tax rate of 15.9%, instead of (5.7%), which
    represented our effective tax rate as derived per our consolidated statement
    of operations. For fiscal 2020, the applicable jurisdictional tax rates
    applied to our income before provision for income taxes after adjusting for
    the effects of items within the table above, such as for stock-based
    compensation, amortization of intangible assets, restructuring, and certain
    other acquisition related items, resulted in an effective tax rate of 18.4%,
    instead of 16.0%, which represented our effective tax rate as derived per our
    consolidated statement of operations.

Cloud and License Business

Our cloud and license business engages in the sale and marketing of our applications and infrastructure technologies that are delivered through various deployment models and include: Oracle license support offerings; Oracle cloud services offerings; and Oracle cloud license and on-premise license offerings. License support revenues are typically generated through the sale of license support contracts related to cloud licenses and on-premise licenses; are purchased by our customers at their option; and are generally recognized as revenues ratably over the contractual term, which is generally one year. Our cloud services deliver applications and infrastructure technologies on a subscription basis via cloud-based deployment models that we develop, provide unspecified updates and enhancements for, deploy, host, manage and support. Revenues for our cloud services are generally recognized over the contractual term, which is generally one to three years, or in the case of usage model contracts, as the cloud services are consumed. Cloud license and on-premise license revenues represent fees earned from granting customers licenses, generally on a perpetual basis, to use our database and middleware and our applications software products within cloud and on-premise IT environments and are generally recognized up front at the point in time when the software is made available to the customer to download and use. We continue


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to place significant emphasis, both domestically and internationally, on direct sales through our own sales force. We also continue to market certain of our offerings through indirect channels. Costs associated with our cloud and license business are included in cloud services and license support expenses, and sales and marketing expenses. These costs are largely personnel and infrastructure related including the cost of providing our cloud services and license support offerings, salaries and commissions earned by our sales force for the sale of our cloud and license offerings, and marketing program costs.



                                                       Year Ended May 31,
                                                          Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)                        2021        Actual   Constant     2020
Cloud and License Revenues:
Americas(1)                                $  18,783         3%         3%   $  18,314
EMEA                                           9,928        10%         4%       9,058
Asia Pacific                                   5,390         5%         1%       5,151
Total revenues(1)                             34,101         5%         3%      32,523
Expenses:
Cloud services and license support(2)          4,133         9%         7%       3,803
Sales and marketing(2)                         6,799        -5%        -6%       7,159
Total expenses(2)                             10,932         0%        -2%      10,962
Total Margin                               $  23,169         7%         5%   $  21,561
Total Margin %                                   68%                               66%
% Revenues by Geography:
Americas                                         55%                               56%
EMEA                                             29%                               28%
Asia Pacific                                     16%                               16%

Revenues by Offerings: Cloud services and license support(1) $ 28,702 5% 3% $ 27,396 Cloud license and on-premise license

           5,399         5%         2%       5,127
Total revenues(1)                          $  34,101         5%         3%   $  32,523
Cloud Services and License Support
Revenues by Ecosystem:
Applications cloud services and license
support(1)                                 $  11,713         6%         5%   $  11,019
Infrastructure cloud services and
license support(1)                            16,989         4%         2%      16,377
Total cloud services and license support
revenues(1)                                $  28,702         5%         3%   $  27,396

(1) Includes cloud services and license support revenue adjustments related to

    certain cloud services and license support contracts that would have
    otherwise been recorded as revenues by the acquired businesses as independent
    entities but were not recognized in our GAAP-based consolidated statements of
    operations for the periods presented due to business combination accounting
    requirements. Such revenue adjustments were included in our operating segment
    results for purposes of reporting to and review by our CODMs. See
    "Presentation of Operating Segment Results and Other Financial Information"
    above for additional information.

(2) Excludes stock-based compensation and certain expense allocations. Also

    excludes amortization of intangible assets and certain other GAAP-based
    expenses, which were not allocated to our operating segment results for
    purposes of reporting to and review by our CODMs, as further described under
    "Presentation of Operating Segment Results and Other Financial Information"
    above.

Excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, our cloud and license business' total revenues increased in fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 due to growth in our cloud services and license support revenues and cloud license and on-premise license revenues as customers purchased our applications and infrastructure technologies via cloud and license deployment models and renewed their related cloud contracts and license support contracts to continue to gain access to the latest versions of our technologies and to receive support for which we delivered such cloud and support services during fiscal 2021. The growth in our cloud and license business' revenues were adversely impacted during fiscal 2021 and 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impacts of COVID-19 for future periods are unknown. In constant currency, the Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific regions contributed 57%, 38% and 5%, respectively, of the constant currency revenue growth for this business in fiscal 2021.

In constant currency, our total cloud and license business' expenses decreased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 due to lower sales and marketing expenses, which decreased primarily due to lower employee related expenses and our curtailment of variable expenditures, including lower employee travel expenses and lower


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marketing expenses, primarily in response to COVID-19. These constant currency expense decreases were partially offset by higher cloud services and license support expenses during fiscal 2021, which were primarily attributable to higher technology infrastructure expenses to support the increase in our cloud and license business' revenues. Our cloud services and license support expenses have grown in recent periods and, in fiscal 2022, we expect this growth to accelerate as we increase our existing data center capacity and establish data centers in new geographic locations in order to meet current and expected customer demand.

Excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, our cloud and license business' total margin and total margin as a percentage of revenues increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 due to the fiscal 2021 increases in total revenues and the decreases in total expenses for this business.

Hardware Business

Our hardware business' revenues are generated from the sales of our Oracle Engineered Systems, server, storage, and industry-specific hardware offerings. The hardware product and related software, such as an operating system or firmware, are highly interdependent and interrelated and are accounted for as a combined performance obligation. The revenues for this combined performance obligation are generally recognized at the point in time that the hardware product is delivered to the customer and ownership is transferred to the customer. Our hardware business also earns revenues from the sale of hardware support contracts purchased by our customers at their option and that are generally recognized as revenues ratably as the hardware support services are delivered over the contractual term, which is generally one year. The majority of our hardware products are sold through indirect channels such as independent distributors and value-added resellers and we also market and sell our hardware products through our direct sales force. Operating expenses associated with our hardware business include the cost of hardware products, which consists of expenses for materials and labor used to produce these products by our internal manufacturing operations or by third-party manufacturers, warranty expenses and the impact of periodic changes in inventory valuation, including the impact of inventory determined to be excess and obsolete; the cost of materials used to repair customer products; the cost of labor and infrastructure to provide support services; and sales and marketing expenses, which are largely personnel related and include variable compensation earned by our sales force for the sales of our hardware offerings.

                                             Year Ended May 31,
                                                Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)               2021       Actual   Constant    2020
Hardware Revenues:
Americas                           $ 1,650        -6%        -6%   $ 1,758
EMEA                                   989        -1%        -4%       998
Asia Pacific                           720         5%         1%       687
Total revenues                       3,359        -2%        -4%     3,443
Expenses:
Hardware products and support(1)       945       -13%       -14%     1,084
Sales and marketing(1)                 388       -15%       -16%       456
Total expenses(1)                    1,333       -13%       -14%     1,540
Total Margin                       $ 2,026         6%         5%   $ 1,903
Total Margin %                         60%                             55%
% Revenues by Geography:
Americas                               49%                             51%
EMEA                                   30%                             29%
Asia Pacific                           21%                             20%



(1) Excludes stock-based compensation and certain expense allocations. Also

    excludes amortization of intangible assets and certain other GAAP-based
    expenses, which were not allocated to our operating segment results for
    purposes of reporting to and review by our CODMs, as further described under
    "Presentation of Operating Segments and Other Financial Information" above.

Our constant currency hardware revenues declined in fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 primarily due to our continued emphasis on the marketing and sale of our growing cloud-based infrastructure technologies and the de-


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emphasis of our sales and marketing efforts for certain of our non-strategic hardware products and related support services, the net impact of which resulted in reduced sales volumes of certain of our hardware product lines and also impacted the volume of hardware support contracts sold in recent periods. Our hardware business' revenues were also adversely impacted during fiscal 2021 and 2020 by the unfavorable economic effects caused by COVID-19. Geographically, we experienced constant currency revenue declines in all regions during fiscal 2021, other than Asia Pacific.

Excluding the effects of currency rate fluctuations, total hardware expenses decreased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to lower hardware product expenses, lower hardware support costs and lower sales and marketing costs, all of which aligned to lower hardware revenues.

In constant currency, our hardware business' total margin and total margin as a percentage of revenues increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to lower total expenses for this business.

Services Business

We offer services to customers and partners to help maximize the performance of their investments in Oracle applications and infrastructure technologies. Services revenues are generally recognized over time as the services are performed. The cost of providing our services consists primarily of personnel related expenses, technology infrastructure expenditures, facilities expenses and external contractor expenses.

                                     Year Ended May 31,
                                        Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)       2021       Actual   Constant    2020
Services Revenues:
Americas                   $ 1,397        -7%        -6%   $ 1,496
EMEA                           977         0%        -5%       979
Asia Pacific                   647         2%        -1%       631
Total revenues               3,021        -3%        -5%     3,106
Total Expenses(1)            2,393       -10%       -12%     2,656
Total Margin               $   628        39%        37%   $   450
Total Margin %                 21%                             14%
% Revenues by Geography:
Americas                       46%                             48%
EMEA                           32%                             32%
Asia Pacific                   22%                             20%



(1) Excludes stock-based compensation and certain allocations. Also excludes

    certain other GAAP-based expenses, which were not allocated to our operating
    segment results for purposes of reporting to and review by our CODMs, as
    further described under "Presentation of Operating Segments and Other
    Financial Information" above.

Excluding the effects of currency rate fluctuations, our total services revenues decreased in fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 primarily due to a decline in our consulting revenues. Our services business revenues were also adversely impacted during fiscal 2021 and 2020 by the impacts of COVID-19, including the impacts of consulting project delays due to customer resource constraints and in-person meeting restrictions imposed by certain jurisdictions. In addition, we incurred lower billable travel expenses and lower billable sub-contractor expenses for which we would have been reimbursed by our customers, which reduced the amount of revenues and expenses we reported for our services business during fiscal 2021 and 2020. Geographically, we experienced constant currency revenue declines in all regions during fiscal 2021.

In constant currency, total services expenses decreased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to lower employee related costs caused by lower headcount in addition to lower travel and sub-contractor expenses as described above.

In constant currency, total margin and total margin as a percentage of total services revenues increased during fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020 due to lower total expenses for this business.


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Research and Development Expenses: Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel related expenditures. We intend to continue to invest significantly in our research and development efforts because, in our judgment, they are essential to maintaining our competitive position.



                                        Year Ended May 31,
                                           Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)          2021       Actual   Constant    2020
Research and development(1)   $ 5,339         6%         6%   $ 5,032
Stock-based compensation        1,188        15%        15%     1,035
Total expenses                $ 6,527         8%         7%   $ 6,067
% of Total Revenues               16%                             15%



(1) Excluding stock-based compensation

On a constant currency basis, total research and development expenses increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher fiscal 2021 employee related expenses including higher salary expenses due to increased headcount, higher variable compensation expenses and higher stock-based compensation expenses. These constant currency expense increases were partially offset by lower travel expenses during fiscal 2021 primarily due to the impacts of COVID-19.

General and Administrative Expenses: General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel related expenditures for IT, finance, legal and human resources support functions.



                                          Year Ended May 31,
                                             Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)            2021       Actual   Constant    2020
General and administrative(1)   $ 1,118         5%         5%   $ 1,062
Stock-based compensation            136        15%        15%       119
Total expenses                  $ 1,254         6%         6%   $ 1,181
% of Total Revenues                  3%                              3%



(1) Excluding stock-based compensation

Excluding the effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations, total general and administrative expenses increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to certain higher employee related expenses including higher variable compensation expenses and higher stock-based compensation expenses. These increases were partially offset by lower salary expenses due to lower headcount, and by lower travel expenses and certain other variable expense curtailments that we implemented during fiscal 2021 primarily due to the impacts of COVID-19. In addition, general and administrative expenses during fiscal 2021 were unfavorably affected in comparison to the prior year due to a $29 million litigation related benefit that reduced our expenses during fiscal 2020.

Amortization of Intangible Assets: Substantially all of our intangible assets were acquired through our business combinations. We amortize our intangible assets over, and monitor the appropriateness of, the estimated useful lives of these assets. We also periodically review these intangible assets for potential impairment based upon relevant facts and circumstances. Note 6 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report has additional information regarding our intangible assets and related amortization.



                                                       Year Ended May 31,
                                                          Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)                        2021        Actual    Constant     2020
Developed technology                       $    621         -21%       -22%   $    789
Cloud services and license support
agreements and related relationships            669          -1%        -2%        676
Other                                            89         -27%       -27%        121

Total amortization of intangible assets $ 1,379 -13% -14% $ 1,586



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Amortization of intangible assets decreased in fiscal 2021 due to a reduction in expenses associated with certain of our intangible assets that became fully amortized, partially offset by a smaller amount of additional amortization from intangible assets that we acquired in connection with our recent acquisitions.

Acquisition Related and Other Expenses: Acquisition related and other expenses primarily consist of personnel related costs for transitional and certain other employees, certain business combination adjustments, including adjustments after the measurement period has ended, and certain other operating items, net.



                                                        Year Ended May 31,
                                                           Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)                           2021      Actual   Constant   2020

Transitional and other employee related costs $ 5 -58% -59% $ 12 Business combination adjustments, net

               4          *          *      (7 )
Other, net                                        129       153%       152%      51

Total acquisition related and other expenses $ 138 147% 145% $ 56




* Not meaningful



On a constant currency basis, acquisition related and other expenses increased during fiscal 2021 due to higher other expenses, net which primarily related to certain facilities-related right-of-use assets and certain other assets that were abandoned in connection with plans to improve our cost structure and operations during fiscal 2021.

Restructuring Expenses: Restructuring expenses resulted from the execution of management approved restructuring plans that were generally developed to improve our cost structure and/or operations, often in conjunction with our acquisition integration strategies and/or other strategic initiatives. Restructuring expenses consist of employee severance costs and other contract termination costs to improve our cost structure prospectively. For additional information regarding our restructuring plans, see Note 8 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.



                                 Year Ended May 31,
                                    Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)    2021      Actual   Constant   2020
Restructuring expenses   $ 431        73%        66%   $ 250

Restructuring expenses in fiscal 2021 and 2020 primarily related to our 2019 Restructuring Plan, which is substantially complete. Our management approved, committed to and initiated the 2019 Restructuring Plan in order to restructure and further improve efficiencies in our operations. We may incur additional restructuring expenses in future periods due to the initiation of new restructuring plans or from changes in estimated costs associated with existing restructuring plans.

The majority of the initiatives undertaken by our 2019 Restructuring Plan were effected to implement our continued emphasis in developing, marketing and selling our cloud-based offerings. These initiatives impacted certain of our sales and marketing and research and development operations. Certain of the cost savings realized pursuant to our 2019 Restructuring Plan initiatives were offset by investments in resources and geographies that better address the development, marketing, sale and delivery of our cloud­based offerings including investments in our second­generation cloud infrastructure.

Interest Expense:



                                  Year Ended May 31,
                                     Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)    2021       Actual   Constant    2020
Interest expense        $ 2,496        25%        25%   $ 1,995


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Interest expense increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 substantially due to higher average borrowings resulting from our issuance of $15.0 billion of senior notes in March 2021 and $20.0 billion of senior notes in March 2020.

Non-Operating Income, net: Non-operating income, net consists primarily of interest income, net foreign currency exchange losses, the noncontrolling interests in the net profits of our majority-owned subsidiaries (primarily Oracle Financial Services Software Limited and Oracle Corporation Japan) and net other income and expenses, including net realized gains and losses related to all of our investments, net unrealized gains and losses related to the small portion of our investment portfolio related to our deferred compensation plan, net unrealized gains and losses related to equity securities and non-service net periodic pension income and losses.



                                              Year Ended May 31,
                                                 Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)                 2021      Actual   Constant    2020
Interest income                      $  101       -81%       -81%   $  527
Foreign currency losses, net           (112 )     -40%       -45%     (185 )

Noncontrolling interests in income (180 ) 10% 10% (164 ) Other, net

                              473          *          *      (16 )

Total non-operating income, net $ 282 74% 95% $ 162




* Not meaningful



Our non-operating income, net increased in fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher other income, net that primarily resulted from a $299 million unrealized investment gain for certain non-marketable securities due to an observable price change and a $193 million unrealized investment gain associated with certain marketable equity securities that we held for certain employee benefit plans and classified as trading, and for which an equal and offsetting amount was recorded to our operating expenses during the same period. These increases in non-operating income, net were partially offset by lower interest income that we recognized in fiscal 2021, which was caused by lower average interest rates that were applicable to our cash, cash equivalent and marketable securities balances.

Benefit from (Provision for) Income Taxes: Our effective income tax rates for each of the periods presented were the result of the mix of income earned in various tax jurisdictions that apply a broad range of income tax rates. Refer to Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for a discussion regarding the differences between the effective income tax rates as presented for the periods below and the U.S. federal statutory income tax rates that were in effect during these periods. Future effective tax rates could be adversely affected by an unfavorable shift of earnings weighted to jurisdictions with higher tax rates, by unfavorable changes in tax laws and regulations, by adverse rulings in tax related litigation, or by shortfalls in stock-based compensation realized by employees relative to stock-based compensation that was recorded for book purposes, among others.


                                                       Year Ended May 31,
                                                          Percent Change
(Dollars in millions)                         2021       Actual   Constant     2020

Benefit from (provision for) income taxes $ 747 * * $ (1,928 ) Effective tax (benefit) expense rate (5.7%)

                            16.0%




* Not meaningful


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We recognized a benefit from income taxes in fiscal 2021 in comparison to income tax expense in fiscal 2020 primarily due to the favorable impact of a $2.3 billion net tax benefit arising from an increase in a net deferred tax asset associated with a partial realignment of our legal entity structure that resulted in the intra-group transfer of certain intellectual property rights in fiscal 2021 and, to a lesser extent, a net change in unrecognized tax benefits due to settlements with tax authorities and an increase in excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation expense, partially offset by an unfavorable jurisdictional mix of earnings and higher pre-tax income in fiscal 2021.

Liquidity and Capital Resources



                                                           As of May 31,
(Dollars in millions)                                2021       Change     2020
Working capital                                    $ 31,403       -10%   $ 34,940

Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities $ 46,554 8% $ 43,057

Working capital: The decrease in working capital as of May 31, 2021 in comparison to May 31, 2020 was primarily due to cash used for repurchases of our common stock, the reclassification of $8.3 billion of long-term senior notes as current liabilities, cash used to pay dividends to our stockholders and cash used for capital expenditures during fiscal 2021. These unfavorable impacts were partially offset by our issuance of $15.0 billion of long-term senior notes in March 2021 (refer to Recent Financing Activities below for additional information), the favorable impacts to our net current assets resulting from our net income during fiscal 2021 and cash proceeds from stock option exercises. Our working capital may be impacted by some or all of the aforementioned factors in future periods, the amounts and timing of which are variable.

Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities: Cash and cash equivalents primarily consist of deposits held at major banks, money market funds, Tier-1 commercial paper and other securities with original maturities of 90 days or less. Marketable securities consist of corporate debt securities and certain other securities. The increase in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities at May 31, 2021 in comparison to May 31, 2020 was primarily due to cash inflows generated by our issuance of $15.0 billion of long-term senior notes in March 2021, cash inflows generated by our operations and cash inflows from stock option exercises during fiscal 2021. These cash inflows during fiscal 2021 were partially offset by certain cash outflows, primarily $20.9 billion for settled repurchases of our common stock, payments of cash dividends to our stockholders, the repayment of $2.6 billion related to our borrowings, and cash used for capital expenditures.

The amount of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities that we report in U.S. Dollars for a significant portion of the cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities balances held by our foreign subsidiaries is subject to translation adjustments caused by changes in foreign currency exchange rates as of the end of each respective reporting period (the offset to which is substantially recorded to accumulated other comprehensive loss (AOCL) in our consolidated balance sheets and is also presented as a line item in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income included elsewhere in this Annual Report). As the U.S. Dollar generally weakened against certain major international currencies during fiscal 2021, the amount of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities that we reported in U.S. Dollars for these subsidiaries increased on a net basis as of May 31, 2021 relative to what we would have reported using constant currency rates from the May 31, 2020 balance sheet date.


                                                             Year Ended May 31,
(Dollars in millions)                                    2021        Change     2020
Net cash provided by operating activities              $  15,887        21%   $ 13,139

Net cash (used for) provided by investing activities $ (13,098 ) * $ 9,843 Net cash used for financing activities

                 $ (10,378 )      69%   $ (6,132 )




* Not meaningful

Cash flows from operating activities: Our largest source of operating cash flows is cash collections from our customers following the purchase and renewal of their license support agreements. Payments from customers for these license support agreements are generally received near the beginning of the contracts' terms, which are generally one year in length. Over the course of a fiscal year, we also have historically generated cash from the


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sales of new licenses, cloud services, hardware offerings and other services. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are for employee related expenditures, material and manufacturing costs related to the production of our hardware products, taxes, interest payments and leased facilities.

Net cash provided by operating activities increased during fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to higher net income, higher cash collections from customers, a portion of which were previously delayed due to the global economic effects that resulted from COVID-19, and certain other cash favorable working capital changes, in each case in fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020.

Cash flows from investing activities: The changes in cash flows from investing activities primarily relate to the timing of our purchases, maturities and sales of our investments in marketable securities, and investments in capital and other assets, including certain intangible assets, to support our growth.

Net cash used for investing activities was $13.1 billion during fiscal 2021 in comparison to net cash provided by investing activities of $9.8 billion during fiscal 2020. Net cash used for investing activities during fiscal 2021 primarily resulted from an increase in cash used for the purchases of marketable securities and other investments and an increase in capital expenditures, partially offset by an increase in cash proceeds from sales and maturities of marketable securities and other investments, in each case during fiscal 2021 relative to fiscal 2020. In fiscal 2022, we expect our capital expenditures could nearly double relative to fiscal 2021, primarily to increase data center capacities and geographic locations to meet current and expected customer demand for our cloud services.

Cash flows from financing activities: The changes in cash flows from financing activities primarily relate to borrowings and repayments related to our debt instruments, stock repurchases, dividend payments and net proceeds related to employee stock programs.

Net cash used for financing activities during fiscal 2021 increased compared to fiscal 2020 primarily due to lower proceeds from the issuance of senior notes and higher stock repurchases, partially offset by lower debt repayments and higher cash proceeds from stock option exercises, in each case during fiscal 2021 in comparison to fiscal 2020.

Free cash flow: To supplement our statements of cash flows presented on a GAAP basis, we use non-GAAP measures of cash flows on a trailing 4-quarter basis to analyze cash flows generated from our operations. We believe that free cash flow is also useful as one of the bases for comparing our performance with our competitors. The presentation of non-GAAP free cash flow is not meant to be considered in isolation or as an alternative to net income as an indicator of our performance, or as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity. We calculate free cash flow as follows:




                                                  Year Ended May 31,
(Dollars in millions)                         2021       Change     2020

Net cash provided by operating activities $ 15,887 21% $ 13,139 Capital expenditures

                          (2,135 )      37%     (1,564 )
Free cash flow                              $ 13,752        19%   $ 11,575
Net income                                  $ 13,746$ 10,135
Free cash flow as percent of net income         100%                  114%


Long-Term Customer Financing: We offer certain of our customers the option to acquire licenses, cloud services, hardware and other services offerings through separate long-term payment contracts. We generally sell these contracts that we have financed for our customers on a non-recourse basis to financial institutions within 90 days of the contracts' dates of execution. We generally record the transfers of amounts due from customers to financial institutions as sales of financing receivables because we are considered to have surrendered control of these financing receivables. We financed $941 million in fiscal 2021 and $1.0 billion in each of fiscal 2020 and 2019 of our cloud license and on-premise license revenues.


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Recent Financing Activities:

Cash Dividends: In fiscal 2021, we declared and paid cash dividends of $1.04 per share that totaled $3.1 billion. In June 2021, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.32 per share of our outstanding common stock payable on July 29, 2021 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on July 15, 2021. Future declarations of dividends and the establishment of future record and payment dates are subject to the final determination of our Board of Directors.

Senior Notes: In March 2021, we issued $15.0 billion of senior notes comprised of the following:

$2.75 billion of 1.65% senior notes due March 2026;


  • $2.00 billion of 2.30% senior notes due March 2028;


  • $3.25 billion of 2.875% senior notes due March 2031;


  • $2.25 billion of 3.65% senior notes due March 2041;


  • $3.25 billion of 3.95% senior notes due March 2051; and


  • $1.50 billion of 4.10% senior notes due March 2061.

We issued the senior notes for general corporate purposes, which may include stock repurchases, payment of cash dividends on our common stock, repayment of indebtedness and future acquisitions. Additionally, in fiscal 2021, we repaid $1.0 billion and €1.25 billion of senior notes pursuant to their terms. Additional details regarding our senior notes are included in Note 7 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Common Stock Repurchase Program: Our Board of Directors has approved a program for us to repurchase shares of our common stock. On March 10, 2021, we announced that our Board of Directors approved an expansion of our stock repurchase program by an additional $20.0 billion. As of May 31, 2021, approximately $15.6 billion remained available for stock repurchases pursuant to our stock repurchase program. We repurchased 329.2 million shares for $21.0 billion, 361.0 million shares for $19.2 billion, and 733.8 million shares for $36.0 billion in fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our stock repurchase authorization does not have an expiration date and the pace of our repurchase activity will depend on factors such as our working capital needs, our cash requirements for acquisitions and dividend payments, our debt repayment obligations or repurchases of our debt, our stock price, and economic and market conditions. Our stock repurchases may be effected from time to time through open market purchases and pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 plan. Our stock repurchase program may be accelerated, suspended, delayed or discontinued at any time.

Contractual Obligations: Our largest contractual obligations as of May 31, 2021 consisted of:

    •   principal payments related to our senior notes and other borrowings that
        are included in our consolidated balance sheet and the related periodic
        interest payments;


    •   routine tax payments including those that are payable pursuant to the
        transition tax under the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that are
        included in our consolidated balance sheet;


    •   operating lease liabilities that are included in our consolidated balance
        sheet; and


    •   other contractual commitments associated with agreements that are
        enforceable and legally binding.

In addition, as of May 31, 2021, we had $8.5 billion of gross unrecognized income tax benefits, including related interest and penalties, recorded on our consolidated balance sheet, the nature of which is uncertain with respect to settlement or release with the relevant tax authorities, although we believe it is reasonably possible that certain of these liabilities could be settled or released during fiscal 2022. We are involved in claims and legal proceedings, which are inherently uncertain with respect to outcomes, estimates and assumptions that we make as of each reporting period, are inherently unpredictable, and many aspects are out of our control. Notes 7, 11, 14 and 17 of


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Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report include additional information regarding our contractual obligations and contingencies.

We believe that our current cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and cash generated from operations will be sufficient to meet our working capital, capital expenditures and contractual obligation requirements. In addition, we believe that we could fund our future acquisitions, dividend payments and repurchases of common stock or debt with our internally available cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, cash generated from operations, additional borrowings or from the issuance of additional securities.

Restricted Stock-Based Awards and Stock Options

Our stock-based compensation program is a key component of the compensation package we provide to attract and retain certain of our talented employees and align their interests with the interests of existing stockholders.

We recognize that restricted stock-based awards and stock options dilute existing stockholders and have sought to control the number of stock-based awards granted while providing competitive compensation packages. Consistent with these dual goals, our cumulative potential dilution since June 1, 2018 has been a weighted-average annualized rate of 1.0% per year. The potential dilution percentage is calculated as the average annualized new restricted stock-based awards and stock options granted and assumed, net of restricted stock-based awards and stock options forfeited by employees leaving the company, divided by the weighted-average outstanding shares during the calculation period. This maximum potential dilution will only result if all restricted stock-based awards vest and stock options are exercised. Of the outstanding stock options at May 31, 2021, which generally have a ten-year exercise period, all have exercise prices lower than the market price of our common stock on such date. In recent years, our stock repurchase program has more than offset the dilutive effect of our stock-based compensation program. However, we may modify the levels of our stock repurchases in the future depending on a number of factors, including the amount of cash we have available for acquisitions, to pay dividends, to repay or repurchase indebtedness or for other purposes. As of May 31, 2021, the maximum potential dilution from all outstanding restricted stock-based awards and unexercised stock options, regardless of when granted and regardless of whether vested or unvested, was 7.7%.

During fiscal 2021, the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors reviewed and approved the annual organization-wide stock-based award grants to selected employees; all stock-based award grants to senior officers; and any individual grant of restricted stock units of 62,500 or greater. Each member of a separate executive officer committee, referred to as the Plan Committee, was allocated a fiscal 2021 equity budget that could be used throughout the fiscal year to grant equity within his or her organization, subject to certain limitations established by the Compensation Committee.


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Restricted stock-based award and stock option activity from June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2021 is summarized as follows (shares in millions):

Restricted stock-based awards and stock options outstanding at May 31, 2018

                                                                          393
Restricted stock-based awards and stock options granted                       164

Restricted stock-based awards vested and issued and stock options exercised

                                                                    (267 )
Forfeitures, cancellations and other, net                                     (73 )

Restricted stock-based awards and stock options outstanding at May 31, 2021

                                                                          217

Weighted-average annualized restricted stock-based awards and stock options granted and assumed, net of forfeitures and cancellations

              31
Weighted-average annualized stock repurchases                                (475 )
Shares outstanding at May 31, 2021                                          2,814

Basic weighted-average shares outstanding from June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2021

                                                                3,263

Restricted stock-based awards and stock options outstanding as a percent of shares outstanding at May 31, 2021

                                7.7%

Total restricted stock-based awards and in the money stock options outstanding (based on the closing price of our common stock on the last trading day of fiscal 2021) as a percent of shares outstanding at May 31, 2021

                                                                 7.7%

Weighted-average annualized restricted stock-based awards and stock options granted and assumed, net of forfeitures and cancellations and before stock repurchases, as a percent of weighted-average shares outstanding from June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2021

                           1.0%

Weighted-average annualized restricted stock-based awards and stock options granted and assumed, net of forfeitures and cancellations and after stock repurchases, as a percent of weighted-average shares outstanding from June 1, 2018 through May 31, 2021

                         -13.6%




Recent Accounting Pronouncements

For information with respect to recent accounting pronouncements, if any, and the impact of these pronouncements on our consolidated financial statements, if any, see Note 1 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

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